Molecular mechanisms of cancerogenesis and tumour progression
– Part II-
UMF „I.Haţieganu” Cluj-Napoca, Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy
Cancerogenesis, the malignant transformation of a normal cell, has two steps: initiation and promotion. Initiation is an irreversible alteration of the genome due to mutagenic action of different agents: chemicals, viruses, radiation. To become manifest, the cell needs some favourable conditions which defines the promotion. In this multistep process there are several genes to be involved: DNA repair genes, detoxification genes, oncogenes and tumour supressor genes. The mutations are accumulating in time al1d eventually, will lead to deregulated gene expression, loss of the cell cycle control, and abnormal adhesion molecules which characterise the tumour progression toward an increasing malignancy.
Key words: cancerogenesis, progression, cancer genes, adhesion molecules, neoangiogenesis, invasion, metastasis.
Radioterapie & Oncologie Mediclă, 1995.3: 1-19
Correlations between T lymphocyte subpopulations in different evolutive stadies of malignant melanoma.
Carmen Stugren1, Monica Crişan1, L. Lazar1, V. Cristea2, Olga Şoriţău1, Anca Lungu1
1 Oncological Institute „Prof I. Chiricuţă” Cluj-Napoca
2 University of Medicine & Pharmacy Cluj-Napoca
A comparative study was carried out on lymphocyte T subsets in 125 patients with malignant melanoma in different evolutive stages, 18 cutaneous carcinoma and 24 healthy controls. The number of T lymphocytes was determined using different types of rosette technique with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC): total T -E-rosettes (TT), high-affmity E-rosettes (TMA) and low-affinity E-rosettes (Tma). The correlations between the lymphocytes of TT versus TMA, TT versus T ma and TMA versus T ma were analysed in all evolutive stages of malignant melanoma divided in three groups: presurgery, postsurgery without treatment and postsurgery with chemo- and/or radiation therapy.
Radioterapie & Oncologie Medicală, 1995,3:20-27
The committee of diagnosis and treatment for thoracic pathology
Dana Cernea1, Adriana Ioan1, T. Guttman1, T.E. Ciuleanu1,2, M. Bârsan2,3 , N. Ghilezan1,2
1Oncological Institute „Prof I. Chiricuţă” Cluj-Napoca
2UMF Cluj-Napoca, Department of Oncology & Raitotherapy
3UMF Cluj-Napoca, Cardiovascular Surgery
The high incidence of lung cancer and the great number of patients who are referred to our Institute, required the reorganisation of the technique committee for this pathology. This committee provide the coordination of the specialists involved in the diagnosis and treatment of this patients, the fa.~t change of the infonnation necessary to the therapeutic decision, as well as the analysis of the results obtained. Between 1989-1994 the number of patients treated in Radiotherapy II department increase from 100 in 1989 to 152 in 1994. The main benefits of the activity of this committee are: a) continuous decreasing of proportion of pathologically unconfirmed patients (in 1990,40-59% vs. 36% in 1994); b) the use of the associated treatment modalities. Between 1989 – 1992, 90% of patients were treated by radiotherapy only, compared to 1994 when 38% of patients were treated by combined modalities. We think that such committees are very important for continuous improving of the quality of diagnosis and treatment.
Radioterapie & Oncologie Medicală 1995, 3: 28-34
State-of-the-art of brachytherapy with special reference to cancers of the cervix and lung to Selectron-LDR/MDR and microSelectron-HDR remote afterloaders
Department of Radiotherapy, Croydon, Surrey, United Kingdom
After a short history of brachytherapy sources and techniques are presented the advantages of HDR versrtS LDR-remote afterloaders in the treatment of lung and cervix cancers. A trial of 76 patients with unilateral inoperable lung tumours sustain thc superiority of the palliative value of brachytherapy versus external beam therapy.
Keywords: brachytherapy, lung cancer, cervix cancer.
Radioterapie & Oncologie Medicală 1995, 3:35-38
The stage III A uterine cervix cancer – Therapeutic decision. A Case presentation.
O.Coza, Viorica Nagy
Institutul Oncologic „Prof. I. Chiricuţă” Cluj-Napoca
The paper deals with the therapeutic decision and the treatment technique in a stage IIIA carcinoma of the uterine cervix.A preoperative radio-chemotherapeutic association is perfonned. After 50 Gy dehverated WIth an four-field box technique a reevaluation is made: the treatment is continued either by an radical abdominal histerectomy,either by the exclusive radio-chemotherapeutic association.
Keywords: uterine cervix,radio-chemotherapeutic association, four-field box technique.
Radioterapie & Oncologie Medicală, 1995, 3:39-43
Irradiation des cancers pelviens evolues: irradiation a visee exclusive ou irradiation integrant une chirurgie de cloture. Place de la chimiotherapie
Dept. de Radiotherapie -CRLC Val d’Aurelle-Paul Lamarque-34298 Montpellier
The paper deals with the problem of advanced pelvic cancers classified into 3 clinical types: pelvic carcinosis, local-advanced cancers with distance metastasis, local-advanced cancers without distance metastasis. The place of radiotherapy, surgery and chemotherapy is exposed, with special references to stage III B in which exclusive radiotherapy obtains 45% local control, 30-35% of cases are in local evolution and 15-20% with local recurrence.
Keywords: advanced pelvic cancers, pelvic carcinosis, uterine cervix cancer.
Radioterapie & Oncologie Medicală,1995,3: 44-51
Modified fractionation radiotherapy. Biological basis, clinical applications
UMF “Iuliu Haţieganu” Cluj-Napoca, Departament of Oncology & Radiotherapy
Fractionation is an effective mean of improving therapeutic ratio. Radiobiology studies have identified the contribution of dose per fraction in the development of late sequelae. Tumor clonogen repopulation may be responsabile for lower percentage of local twnor control in the case of longer overall treatment titnes. The recovery of radiation induced injury is dependent of proliferative characteristics of the tissue. Hierarchical tissues are responsabile for acute reactions od irradiation and flexibiJe tissues for late reactiol1S. Proliferative characteristics of tumors are determinated by mean of laboratory predictive tests such Tpot, thymidine labelling index or DNA-S phase. These tests are useful for predicting biological behaviour of tumors. Rapidly proliferating tumors can be better treated with accelerated fractionation, but acute and late toxicity is more important. Hyperfractionated radiotherapy is a adequate strategy for tumors with a mediUm proliferative index.
Key words: fractionation, hierarchical tissues, flexibile tissues, hyperfractionation, accelerated fractionation
Radioterapie & Oncologie Medicală, 1995, 3:52-59
61 Paclitaxel (Taxol : Current Practices and Future Directions in Breast Cancer Management, Londra, 15 September 1995